Program Notes for "It Takes a Village"- Follow Along!
I It Takes a Village ……………………………….. Joan Szymko
II Dort'n, Dort'n ……………………………………. arr. Robert DeCormier Noel Ayisyen ……………………………………… Emile Desamours
III Pueblito, mi Pueblo ……………………………. Carlos Guastavino The Spheres ……………………………………….. Ola Gjeilo
IV This Marriage …………………………………….. Eric Malmquist Wana Baraka ……………………………………… arr. Shawn L. Kirchner
V Walk Together Children ………………………. arr. Moses Hogan Bogoroditse Devo ……………………………….. Sergei Rachmaninoff from Vsénoshchnoye bdéniye, Op. 37
VI Shout the Glad Tidings …………………………… Ned Rorem Ave Verum Corpus ……………………………….. William Byrd
VII Twa Tanbou …………………………………………. Sydney Guillaume
It Takes a Village.......Joan Szymko (b. 1957)
Eric Brummitt, baritone & Sharon DeCaro, shekere|Angela Tomasino, djembe|Andy LoDolce, conga
It takes a whole village to raise our children It takes a whole village to raise one child We all every one must share the burden We all every one will share the joy.
- Adaptation from West African folklore
Our concert’s namesake, Joan Szymko’s It Takes a Village, is a relatively simple, but profound nonetheless, setting of a proverb popularly attributed to the Igbo people of Nigeria. Interestingly, there has been quite a bit of speculation about the specific origin of the proverb, much of it arriving in the wake of then-First Lady Hillary Clinton’s book of the same name. As it happens, there are many African cultures that seem to share this creed: In the Ugandan kingdom of Bunyoro, for instance, there is a proverb that says, Omwana takulila nju emoi, the literal translation of which is, “A child does not grow up only in a single home.” Additionally, in Swahili, the proverb asiyefunzwa na mamae hufunzwa na ulimwengu approximates to “despite a child's (biological) parents, its upbringing belongs to the community.” The apparent widespread nature of these proverbs throughout the continent speaks powerfully, I think, to the universality of our concert theme.
The idea of unity in It Takes a Village is musically depicted primarily in the way in which the voices grow together. The piece begins with a solo singer and expands, first into unison sopranos, altos, and tenors, and then into three- and finally four-part harmony. Szymko has, in her own words, “sought to embody the cultural concept behind the proverb—that it is truly ALL the individual parts linked and working together that create and support the whole. The four vocal rhythms in the main portion of the work, each with its own character and function, are essential to creating the unique energy and movement of Village. Only when they are sung together does a truly joyful spirit arise.” –ED
Dortn, Dortn.........arr. Robert DeCormier (b. 1922) Sung in Yiddish Melissa Curtis, soprano
Far off across the water, Far off over the bridge, You have driven me to distant lands, Yet I long for you.
Oh help me God, oh God in heaven, For I am sick with love. Three whole years we’ve played at love But never loved, and play on still. Oh your eyes, like black cherries, And your lips, like rosy paper, And your fingers, like pen and ink, Oh, write to me often, and soon!
While you might hear Yiddish songs today in concert or at social gatherings of Yiddish speakers, their natural venue was the village, or shtetl, of Eastern Europe or America where you could hear them through open windows in courtyards, or from busy people humming their way from place to place.
Although best known for his vociferous spirituals (some of you may even remember WPCS’ rendition of Let Me Fly), Robert DeCormier arranges this traditional Jewish love poem with more of an introspective feel. While the form is rather simple, DeCormier adds touches of word painting throughout. One example is the oscillating harmony lines of the Soprano, Tenor, and Bass parts in the beginning, which paints a picture of rolling waves on a distant sea. All 4 parts join in for “I pray that heaven above….”, followed by a lovely solo voice that finishes the prayer. The piece ends with more imagery of the sea and great distance. –BP
Noél Ayisyen........Emile Desamours (b. 1941) Sung in Creole
It was in Bethelhem, A little corner of Judea, That Mary had a baby boy At midnight in a stable. He was the Son of God And he was the King of Kings. Since I was a little child I’ve known this story.
There were three wise kings Who followed a great star With gifts in their hands To come worship the child. And they were quite amazed When they saw little Jesus Lying between a cow And a donkey.
Hear that, my friends! Noel is a strange story indeed! Jesus, Son of God, King of Kings, Doesn’t even have a cradle. He sleeps on the straw among animals…Oh my!
They called him Woderful, Counselor, Mighty God; The Everlasting Father, too; And he was the Prince of Peace. Both shepherds and wisemen Bowed down to worship him. They gave him gifts According to what they had.
Back then, if we’d been there, We’d have done something fitting, We’d have offered him music Of the best Haitian kind. We’d have brought drums, Manniboulas, vaccins, maracas
With fine banjo strums We’d have charmed little Jesus.
Jesus, Jesus, our little Jesus, We love you greatly. You bring peace to all people And you offer us grace.
Noel, Noel, Noel, long live Noel!
Noél Ayisyen (Haitian Noël) by Emile Desamours is a retelling of the story of Jesus’s birth, but with a distinct twist that is utterly Haitian. Like Twa Tambou, another Haitian piece on our program, the sonic atmosphere of Noél is characterized by singers’ imitations of traditional Haitian folk instruments. In this case, these are: the vaccin, a bamboo woodwind instrument; the manniboula, a plucked string bass instrument; the banjo; and maracas. Desamours, who serves as director of Voix et Harmonie (Haiti’s premier folk choir), is certainly no stranger to these instruments, and they are included in this Nativity story as musical offerings to newborn Christ: “Back then, if we’d been there, we’d have done something fitting, we’d have offered him music of the best Haitian kind,” as Desamours’s delightful lyrics proclaim.
For centuries, music has played an invaluable part in Haiti’s cultural identity. One of the country’s most popular festivals of music is Rara, a kind of boisterous, musical parade that travels through the Haitian streets, with musicians singing and playing all the instruments Desamours lists as they march. The sonic effect of the Rara is imitated in Noél Ayisyen—the choir’s voices gradually increase in volume, evoking the sound of an approaching mass, and the instrumental impressions become more pronounced. Desamours’s homage both to the traditional Christian story of Jesus’s birth and to his own Haitian roots (songs sung in the Rara celebrate the African ancestry of the Afro-Haitian people) creates not only a wonderfully unique sound, but also a powerful synthesis of cultures that perfectly represents our concert theme. –ED
Pueblito, mi Pueblo.................Carlos Guastavino (1912-2000) Sung in Spanish Claire Maude, soprano | Jonathan Schildt, piano
O village so lovely I miss all those fine days. My heart is within you; I cannot forget you.
Homesickness cirlces around me, Filling my soul through the day’s hours. If I could have one more chance, Under the tree I would dream, Seeing the clouds that are passing. Ah! And when the sun sets each night, I’d feel the breeze passing by, Fragrances floating from blossoms.
- Francisco Silva
Written by Carlos Guastavino, “The Schubert of the Pampas,” this romantic, nostalgic Argentinian piece purposely avoids avante-garde, modernist style in the interests of preserving a conservative tone. This does not mean that Guastavino is backwards looking or uninspired—his use of lush melody and his commitment to preserving Argentinian folk music put him on the cutting edge of nationalist movements. He inspired pop and folk musicians throughout the 1960s. And even after his death, Argentinians continued his important work by founding an organization in his name, dedicated partially to the performance of his pieces, but more broadly devoted to the furthering of musical, academic, and national arts in Argentina. -EC
The Spheres..........Ola Gjeilo (b. 1978) Sung in Latin
Lord, have mercy. Christ, have mercy. Lord, have mercy.
The Spheres, by Norwegian composer Ola Gjeilo, represents a departure from the traditional conception of “community”: it is not about how we relate to one another, but how we relate to, and how we make sense of, the otherworldly unknown. The Spheres is drawn from a larger work with a similar theme, Sunrise Mass, for choir and string orchestra. In four movements, Sunrise Mass marks the progression from the transparent and ethereal—The Spheres (Kyrie) and Sunrise (Gloria)—to something more earthy and grounded—The City (Credo) and Identity & The Ground (Sanctus).
Set here for a cappella chorus, The Spheres also represents the progression from “heaven to earth.” As Gjeilo describes, the floating, overlapping voices and slow progression of harmony in the opening section “give a sense of floating in space, in darkness and relative silence, surrounded by stars and planets light-years away.” After the choir builds massive tone clusters from ascending scales, the earlier ethereal texture gives way to a traditional chorale that presents the thematic material of the opening directly. The journey ends with the choir in unison, marking the full transition from disordered darkness to a comforting familiarity. –JS
This Marriage………… Eric Malmquist (b. 1985) May these vows and this marriage be blessed. May it be sweet milk, this marriage, like wine and halvah. May this marriage offer fruit and shade like the date palm. May this marriage be full of laughter, our every day a day in paradise. May this marriage be a sign of compassion, a seal of happiness here and hereafter. May this marriage have a fair face and a good name, an omen as welcome as the moon in a clear blue sky. I am out of words to describe how spirit mingles in this marriage. -Rumi Local composer Eric Malmquist wrote This Marriage for the occasion of his wedding this past October. Using a simple four part texture and Mixolydian mode, the composer provides an ancient-sounding and other-worldly setting for Rumi’s 13th century Persian poem. One can hear the different voice parts space out and come back together in unison, symbolizing the union of two people. Eric’s bride, Stephanie Photakis Malmquist, happens to be a founding member of WPCS, and as such we were fortunate enough to perform this work as part of their wedding ceremony.
Wana Baraka............arr. Shawn L. Kirchner (b. 1970) Sung in Swahili
They have blessings, those who pray; Jesus himself said so. Alleluia! They have peace They have joy They have well-being.
This energetic piece combines multiple traditions in order to create a beautiful whole. First, the language of the piece is traditional in that Swahili is over 800 years old. It was created in the 1200s to facilitate business deals between Muslim sailors in the Indian Ocean and community leaders in the African interior. Second, the message of the piece, brotherhood and blessings, represents a much newer tradition of Christianity, introduced to the African continent by missionaries in the 1800s. And finally, the Swahili text and Christian message combine in the rhythms and cadences brought forward by oral history tropes, the oldest tradition of all. It takes all three traditions to make this piece what it is—a joyful celebration of hope and health that appears out on the horizon in a pianissimo, walks boldly forward throughout the song, building momentum, and then spreads an exuberant, fortissimo Alleluia at the end. -EC
Walk Together Children............. arr. Moses Hogan (1957-2003)
There’s a great camp meetin’. Lawd, a great camp meetin’ in the promised lan’. Oh, walk together, children, don’t you get weary, Walk on, my children, don’t you get-a weary, Just-a walk together, children, don’t you get weary, There’s a great camp meetin’ in the promised lan’. Oh, walk together children, don’t you get weary, Sing on, my children, don’t you get-a weary, Just-a shout together, children, don’t you get weary, There’s a great camp meetin’, Yes, a great camp meetin’, There’s a great camp meetin’ in the promised lan’.
Born in New Orleans in 1957, Moses Hogan was a world-renowned arranger of African American spirituals, a gifted pianist, and a fine conductor. The traditional spiritual, Walk Together, Children is one of his most popular arrangements. For me, the piece also served as a memorable introduction to Moses Hogan, though I was only ten years old at the time.
In October 2001, Hogan worked on the piece, then in manuscript form, with Nova Singers, a professional choir founded and directed by my mother, Laura Lane. I attended rehearsals on occasion and quickly developed a fascination for Hogan’s Southern, gentlemanly manners. They trickled into his rehearsal style, in his kind insistence that the singers embrace the feeling and the diction exactly as he intended.
Hogan was as adamant about accurate performance practice as he was about respecting the tradition of the spiritual. His arrangement is constructed around slow and unhurried walking. The strong beat feels like it is in a slow two, with leans on beats one and three. He wanted a rich, warm sound, and called for, “All of your vibrato! Let me have all of it!” He wanted a dramatic, not energetic, slide into the final chord. The point was that despite repeated references to walking without tiring, the song is about the need to just take another step.
Through our interpretation we aim to honor this interpretation, and the piece’s history, while telling the story of hope for a better day to come with our modern-day context in mind. –LLS
Bogoroditse Devo from Vsénoshchnoye bdéniye, Op. 37.............Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943) Sung in Church Slovanic
Rejoice, O virgin mother of God, Mary full of grace, The Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women, And blessed is the fruit of thy womb, For thou has borne the savior of our souls.
When Sergei Rachmaninoff wanted to marry Natalia Satina in 1902, there were two major problems in the eyes of the church; first, Natalia was his first cousin, and second, Rachmaninoff “steadfastly refused” to attend church services. The couple eventually worked their way around these problems by marrying in a military chapel, but the experience was one more strike against the Orthodox Church for Rachmaninoff. Despite his complicated relationship with Russia’s state religion, Rachmaninoff went on to write the All-Night Vigil in 1915, a piece lauded as the greatest achievement in Russian Orthodox music.
Bogoroditse Devo is the sixth movement of the All-Night Vigil (Vsénoshchnoye bdéniye), closing out the vespers portion of the liturgy. It is one of just five movements from the Vigil not directly based on traditional chant, though Rachmaninoff described it as a “conscious counterfeit” of chant. The movement splits into 6 parts at its climax, a joyful expression of praise to the Virgin Mary. This simple and beautiful piece is arguably the most beloved section of the Vigil. The Vigil was one of Rachmaninoff’s favorite pieces. At his request, the work was performed at his funeral in 1943. -CM
Shout the Glad Tidings...............Ned Rorem (b. 1923)
Shout the glad tidings, exultingly sing, Jerusalem triumphs, Messiah is King!
Zion, the marvelous story be telling, The Son of the Highest, how lowly His birth! The brightest archangel in glory excelling, He stoops to redeem thee, He reigns upon earth.
Tell how He cometh; from nation to nation The heart cheering news let the earth echo round; How free to the faithful He offers salvation, His people with joy everlasting are crowned.
Mortals, your homage be gratefully bringing, And sweet let the gladsome hosannas arise; Ye angels, the full alleluias be singing; One [Chorus] resound through the earth and the skies.
Shout the glad tidings.
- William Augustus Muhlenberg American composer and writer Ned Rorem is one of today's leading composers of choral and solo vocal music. As famous for his diaries, essays, and letters as for his compositions, Rorem's love of the written word guides and informs his compositions.
Shout the Glad Tidings was commissioned by the church coir of St. Stephens in New York City in 1978. The church asked for a simple, brief piece that could be sung without much rehearsal. Rorem responded with this piece and two other short works comprising Three Choruses for Christmas. Set to a text by American clergyman, educator, and hymnodist William Augustus Muhlenberg, this piece maintains the homophonic, strophic structure of a traditional hymn, but includes some surprisingly modern modulations and harmonies. Overall, Rorem's writing is decidedly tonal and traditional – “complexity for its own sake bores me,” he has said.
Though many of his pieces use sacred texts, Rorem himself is an atheist. “I believe in Belief, but I have no Belief. Nevertheless, some of my most persuasive music has been settings of so-called sacred texts. I'm drawn to these texts, however, for their poetry, not for their sanctity. Religion, like love, can be as devastating as it is productive,” he said in a 1986 interview.
Rorem dislikes analyzing or explaining his work. ”What can I possibly say about this song that the words and the music don't say better?” he once said. “Once [a] song is finished it's up to God about whether the piece works or not-whether it bleeds and breathes. Whether you can live with it or not. However, I don't believe in God.” -CM
Ave Verum Corpus............William Byrd (1540-1623)
English Translation Hail the true body, born of the Virgin Mary: You who truly suffered and were sacrificed on the cross for the sake of man. From whose pierced flank flowed water and blood: Be a foretaste for us in the trial of death. O sweet, O merciful, O Jesus, Son of Mary. Have mercy on me. Amen.
The Ave Verum Corpus, a 14th century hymn that is sung during a masses’ Eucharistic consecration, is one of the most widely used texts amongst sacred historical composers. Consequently, each composer’s edition seems to epitomize their respective overarching styles. Josquin, a Renaissance composer, uses polyphony to create a piece with multiple melodic lines running throughout in interlocking patterns. Mozart’s edition is in classical structure that is sung with vibrant symphony. Franz Liszt, who epitomizes late 19th century romantic impulses, utilizes more dissonance and unstructured form to convey the pain described in the words above. So what part does Byrd play in this historical narrative? To properly answer that, one must consider the culture in which Byrd lived.
16th Century England, under the charge of Queen Elizabeth I, was officially Protestant; and although Byrd was famous in his day, he constantly lived in fear of losing commissions because of his Catholic faith. Because of this, many of Byrd’s earlier sacred works were smaller in scope, and included phrases and musical suspensions meant to secretly signify the desire for equal protection for Catholics in England. By 1605, under the rule of King James I, Byrd felt comfortable enough to compose his most overtly Catholic book of songs, Gradualia. From this song set comes this beautiful setting of “Ave Verum Corpus”.
At the same time, styles from composers such as Thomas Tallis (Byrd’s mentor) and Thomas Luis de Victoria were making their way across Europe. This new breed of composer took the purely polyphonic phrasing that composers such as Josquin or Palestrina had created, and incorporated some chordal elements to help convey feelings of sadness or passion. As such, the works of Byrd, including “Ave Verum Corpus”, exhibit many of these same elements.
Putting the musical and cultural elements together, one finds a proudly religious piece, which isn’t afraid to examine one of the most sacred parts of the Catholic faith and mass. Similarly to earlier sacred works, the text is paramount to all phrasing, and is easy to understand. Instead of using a 4 part polyphonic form throughout, Byrd mixes the style with each phrase. This allows the listener to hear and process the text while still responding emotionally to the music. A good example of this starts with the phrase “O dulcis”, where the Soprano part begins independently, and is followed by the lower three voices. Each of the three phrases in this section ring together to signify their unified acknowledgement of Jesus’ sacrifice. However, by the time the text gets to “miserere”, there is a sudden switch to 4 part polyphony. This change thickens the musical texture, as if to show the multifaceted nature of “mercy”.
Twa Tanbou...................Sydney Guillaume (b. 1982) Sung in Creole
Three drums Are having an argument A great Sunday morning On their way back from Guinea
A little Kata… A little Tanbouren… A big Boula…
Boula declared That he can hit the loudest Boula declared “I can hit the loudest!”
Tanbouren said “I have the most beautiful sound” He said “when I perform, keep quiet and listen!”
Kata who was hearing all this became angry He could not comprehend how two soldiers Who are dressed with the same outfit And are children of the same mother Are sitting around making a scandal
One fine Mardi-Gras day, Kata started to “zouk” Every single person there began to dance…
Tanbouren and Boula who were there listening To make the party more exciting, they started a great throng
That day, They all sang a song that I’ll never forget:
All drums that are dispersed Let’s put our shoulders together To make life more beautiful
- Louis M. Célestin
Sydney Guillaume, born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, blends his cultural roots with his American upbringing to create unique choral pieces. In Twa Tanbou, Guillaume contrasts the Creole text with drum-sound syllables to create a lively piece. Through simple harmonies and detailed rhythms, Guillaume tells Louis Marie Celesin’s story about three drums. The central theme of Twa Tanbou fits right in with the WPCS dream of a starfish world. In order for a team to reach its potential, each member must play his or her part with the whole community in mind. After the Boula drum brags about his volume and the Tanbouren drum calls for all to be quiet in order to listen to his beautiful sound, the little Kata drum reminds us that if everyone works together, we will make beautiful music! -LLS
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ABOUT THE CHOIR
Wicker Park Choral Singers believes in making world-class choral music accessible to the community and is committed to producing concerts that are free and open to the public. Through the enthusiasm and dedication of its members and support of its loyal donor community, WPCS has quickly grown from a grassroots effort in the spring of 2008 to an established performing arts ensemble in the Chicago area. With repertoire ranging from Renaissance motets to contemporary works of today’s foremost composers, WPCS aims to provide something to excite and engage each and every audience member.
Mark Tomasino – Founder & Artistic Director Mark Tomasino is quickly emerging as an exciting young artist within the choral music community. Known both for his sensitive musicianship and original programming, he is passionate about creating a unique, enriching experience for every ensemble and audience member. Tomasino earned a B.A. in Music Composition from Illinois Wesleyan University, where he sang in three national choir tours, an international tour through Eastern Europe, and studied a semester at the Conservatorium van Amsterdam in the Netherlands.
Singers Soprano: Elizabeth Burchfield, Kate Cochran, Kathryn Colby, Melissa Curtis, Sharon DeCaro*, Lesley Hoerner, Stephanie Malmquist, Claire Maude (CM), Viktoria Rill, Jamie Simone, Lily Wirth Alto: Erin Crawley (EC), Sarah Homan, Caitlin Leman, Rachel Mikolajczyk, Kathryn Reihsmann, Lydia Lane Stout (LLS), Megan Thompson, Angela Tomasino, Joanna Tomassoni*, Helen Vasey Tenor: Brian Butler, Lyle Harlow, Anthony Hinrich, Tim Holbrook, Ben Mann, Jonathan Schildt (JS), Adam Schleinzer*, Mark Talsma, Carl Wasielewski Bass: Eric Brummitt, Edward F. Davis (ED), Joe DiMaria, Matthew Hanes, Ben Irey, Jonathan Levin, Andy LoDolce, Brian Prange (BP), Kyle Shiver-Simpson*, Brian Solem, Andrew Sudds